The present day Biblioteca Nacional de Ciencias de la Salud (National Library of Health Sciences) dates back to 1994, when, coinciding with the 70th Anniversary of the Escuela Nacional de Sanidad (National School of Public Health), it was constituted as the Centralized Document Processing Unit for all departments of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III.
It was officially declared a National Centre on 2 August 1996 (Royal Decree 1893/1996), reporting organically and functionally to the Institute's Escuela Nacional de Sanidad. With effect from from 28 July 2000 (Royal Decree 809/2000), it reported to the Sub-DirectorateGeneral of Teaching Planning and Coordination, whose powers include the coordination of the Escuela Nacional de Sanidad and the Biblioteca Nacional de Ciencias de la Salud, which is responsible for the management and coordination of all the Institute's libraries.
The Sub-Directorate General for Cooperative Research Centres and Networks took over the management of the Biblioteca Nacional de Ciencias de la Salud from May 2005 (Royal Decree 590/2005) . Currently the Director of the Library is Elena Primo Peña.